Justin M. Swartz and Juno Turner, Labor & Employment Law, Section of Labor and Employment Law, American Bar Association, Winter 2013, Volume 41, Number 2
Reaction to: Reforming Diversity: Finding Our Way to a more Inclusive Affirmative Action Jurisprudence
Jalise R. Burt, 5 Geo. J. L. Mod. Crit. Race Persp. 77, 2013
The Epidemic Of Employer Misclassification Of Employees As Independent Contractors Under The Fair Labor Standards Act, And The Courts' Response
Justin M. Swartz, and Mariko Hirose, and contributions by Piper Hoffman, 2009
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)’s compensation requirements, such as minimum wages and overtime pay, apply only to “employees.” Chao v. Mid-Atl. Installation Servs., Inc., 16 F. App'x 104, 105 (4th Cir. 2001). Employers can get around these requirements and lower their tax bills at the same time by classifying workers as “independent contractors” instead of “employees.” Employers classify as independent contractors many workers who do not meet the legal definition: the Department of Labor estimates that up to 30% of U.S. employers misclassify workers. Courts have found rampant violations across certain industries.
Justin Swartz and Rachel Bien, Section of Labor & Employment Law, American Bar Association, Vol. 35, Number 4, Summer 2007
Few doubt the merits of diversity in the workplace. Indeed, a host of organizational leaders from chief executive officers to top military brass have recently touted the importance of a diverse labor force. As a result, an entire industry has emerged, geared toward eradicating workplace inequality.
Many thoughtful ideas have made their way onto "best practices" lists that identify methods to increase the representation of historically underrepresented groups in corporations and firms. (See, e.g., Equal Employment Opportunity Committee Diversity Task Force web page, which links to several lists of "best practices," http://apps.americanbar.org/dch/comadd.cfm?com=LL104000&pg=2
Despite all of this attention, however, the challenge of actually achieving diversity remains. As Alexandra Kalev, Frank Dobbin, and Erin Kelly wrote in a recent article examining the effectiveness of employers' efforts to promote diversity, "We know a lot about the disease of workplace inequality, but not much about the cure." "Best Practices or Best Guesses? Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies," 71 Am. Soc. Rev. 589, 590 (August 2006).
At the 2007 National Conference on Equal Employment Opportunity Law in Charleston, South Carolina, the Section's Equal Employment Opportunity Committee (EEOC) presented two panels that focused on efforts to increase diversity in private sector workplaces, including law firms. The consensus that emerged from both panels was clear: truly overcoming inequality in the workplace requires more than changing hearts and minds. It demands a structural, top-down approach with incentives for meeting concrete diversity goals.